A fire hose nozzle is an attachment for fire hoses that generates and directs a stream of water or fire-extinguishing liquid. The demand for these safety equipment is increasing due to stringent fire regulations for buildings, bolstering the market.
While there are a number of plastic nozzles available, this model is made from a sturdy metal and has an excellent build quality that doesn’t feel cheap or lightweight. It also has a wide range of spray patterns that can be selected.
The flow rate of a fire nozzle determines the amount of water that is generated when the nozzle is activated. The flow of water produced by the nozzle is affected by both the size of the opening and nozzle pressure.
For example, a 1 1/4-inch smooth bore tip flowing at 167 gpm with 50 psi nozzle pressure develops a nozzle reaction of 88 lbs. This high nozzle reaction force limits a 2 1/2-inch handline’s deployability, manageability and maneuverability when aggressively advanced by a crew of three proficient, physically fit firefighters (filler, back-up and door/kink).
For this reason, it is crucial to evaluate engine capacity, pump efficiency and hose lays to determine the desired nozzle flow range. This will then guide the choice of constant or select gallonage nozzles. Choosing the correct nozzle is essential to ensure that crews have adequate water for structural fire suppression.
A fire hose nozzle attaches to the end of a fire hose, allowing it to direct the flow of water in different directions. They’re used in a variety of applications, including municipal departments, industrial job sites, and residential projects. They’re also available in a wide range of sizes, styles, materials, and types.
Some nozzles can be used with water or firefighting foam, depending on the type of fire they’re fighting. Others can discharge both water and a fire retardant material such as aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to help extinguish class A, B, and C fires.
Constant gallonage nozzles are adjustable-pattern spray nozzles that maintain a constant rate of discharge through a range of patterns from straight stream to fog at a designated nozzle pressure. This nozzle style helps guarantee a stream’s reach with a self-adjusting component that automatically adjusts orifice size. The Ultimate Hose Nozzle is threaded to fit all standard garden hoses and offers a wide array of spray patterns, from a solid jet to a broad fan. This nozzle features two way shut-off and is “BUILT TO LAST”.
The nozzle’s pressure rating determines how far water travels and how deeply it penetrates burning materials. It also affects how much gallons of water are available for firefighting. The nozzle’s expected, or rated, gallonage at a given pressure is printed on the nozzle label.
The higher the nozzle’s pressure at a given flow rate, the less it will react when fired by a firefighter. This is important for hoseline maneuverability and staffing requirements. Safe nozzle reaction forces have been identified as 60 pounds of force for one firefighter and 75 pounds for a team of two firefighters.
For this reason, many fire departments use nozzles rated at lower pressures such as 50 psi or 75 psi. However, this may limit their ability to perform some operations, like standpipes or high-rise attacks. For these applications, fire protection engineer Greg Jakubowski recommends using a premium hose with good kink resistance.
The size of the nozzle and the materials it is made of will affect its weight. For example, a nozzle with a wider diameter will be heavier than a smaller one.
The threads on the end of a fire hose nozzle are another important consideration. Not all nozzles have the same threading, and it’s essential that you use one that connects to your hoses with compatible couplings. Look for couplings with lettering that indicates the type of thread used.
For example, a fire hose with the lettering NH uses National Standard Thread, while a hose with NPSH has National Pipe Straight Hose Thread.
Firefighters must carry heavy equipment throughout the day, including a full supply of water. They also must drag hoses that can be extremely heavy when full of water. This can cause premature wear and damage, so it’s important for firefighters to know how to handle and care for their hoses. Fortunately, the right tools can help them make light work of this grueling task.